In the broadest definition, a sensor is a device, module, or subsystem whose purpose is to detect events or changes in its environment and send the information to other electronics, frequently a computer processor. A sensor is always used with other electronics, whether as simple as a light or as complex as a computer.


A transducer is a device that converts energy from one form to another. Usually a transducer converts a signal in one form of energy to a signal in another.

A hybrid integrated circuit, HIC, hybrid microcircuit, or simply hybrid is a miniaturized electronic circuit constructed of individual devices, such as semiconductor devices (e.g. transistors and diodes) and passive components (e.g. resistors, inductors, transformers, and capacitors), bonded to a substrate or printed circuit board (PCB).

Sheet metal embossing is a stamping process for producing raised or sunken designs or relief in sheet metal.

Boriding, also called boronizing, is the process by which boron is introduced to a metal or alloy.

Sintering is the process of compacting and forming a solid mass of material by heat or pressure without melting it to the point of liquefaction.

Phosphate coatings are used on steel parts for corrosion resistance, lubricity, or as a foundation for subsequent coatings or painting.