Anodizing (also spelled anodising, particularly in the UK and Australia) is an electrolytic passivation process used to increase the thickness of the natural oxide layer on the surface of metal parts. 

The process is called anodizing because the part to be treated forms the anode electrode of an electrical circuit. Anodizing increases resistance to corrosion and wear, and provides better adhesion for paint primers and glues than does bare metal. 

Heat treating is a group of industrial and metalworking processes used to alter the physical, and sometimes chemical, properties of a material. The most common application is metallurgical.

Heat treatments are also used in the manufacture of many other materials, such as glass. Heat treatment involves the use of heating or chilling, normally to extreme temperatures, to achieve a desired result such as hardening or softening of a material.

The processes of surface treatments, more formally surface engineering, tailor the surfaces of engineering materials to control friction and wear, improve corrosion resistance, change physical property, e.g., conductivity, resistivity, and reflection, alter dimension, vary appearance, e.g., color and roughness, reduce cost. Ultimately, the functions and/or service lives of the materials can be improved.

A semiconductor is a substance, usually a solid chemical element or compound, that can conduct electricity under some conditions but not others, making it a good medium for the control of electrical current. Its conductance varies depending on the current or voltage applied to a control electrode, or on the intensity of irradiation by infrared (IR), visible light, ultraviolet (UV), or X rays.


The methods of manufacturing rubber are similar for all producers World-Wide. Variances however, may occur regarding specific compounds, each manufacturer’s production methods and levels of sophistication.

Formulation and Mixing of Rubber Compounds: VIP-Polymers process a variety of rubber materials, both natural and synthetic, into compounds suitable to face the most challenging performance and environmental criteria. Natural rubbers are supplied from traditional countries in the Far East such as Malaysia and Indonesia. 

Inserts can either be incorporated at the time of the moulding process, or be inserted as a post moulding operation. When incorporated as part of the moulding process, the inserts can either be loaded by robot assistance or by the process operator.

If the inserts are applied as a post moulding operation, they can usually be applied any time after the moulding process. In some cases, they are inserted as part of a series of post moulding operations. 

Injection moulding (injection molding in the USA) is a manufacturing process for producing parts by injecting material into a mould. Injection moulding can be performed with a host of materials, including metals, glasses, elastomers, confections, and most commonly thermoplastic and thermosetting polymers. Material for the part is fed into a heated barrel, mixed, and forced into a mould cavity, where it cools and hardens to the configuration of the cavity.